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A type of unsolicited e-mail (spam) that specifically advertises a product.

Copyright Infringement

The unauthorised use of material in a manner that violates copyright law.


The unauthorised use of computer and network resources.

Open Relay

An SMTP server that allows third party relay of email messages.  An open relay makes it possible for an unscrupulous sender to route large volumes of email messages.

Open Proxy

A proxy server that is configured so that any internet user can use it.  Open proxy servers are widely used by spammers due to the fact that it hides the spammer’s IP Address from recipients.

Port Scan

Port scanning software is designed to search a network host for open ports which can be exploited.


A virus is a program or piece of code loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes. They can replicate themselves and spread over a network. A worm spreads from computer to computer but unlike a virus has the capability to travel without any human action.


The fraudulent process of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords or credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in electronic communication such as a website.


Domains/ email addresses/ IP Addresses/ IP Ranges are denied access to a service because of a "bad name".

DoS Attack

A denial of service attack that attempts to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users.

Dictionary Attack

A method of breaking into a password protected computer or server by systematically entering every word in a dictionary as a password.


A probe is an attempt to gain access to a computer and its files through a known or probable weak point in the computer system for the purpose of monitoring or collecting data about network activity.

Unsolicited Bounce

An unsolicited bounce is an email “bounce message” that is sent to a user whose name was forged into the headers of the email that provoked the bounce.  It is also referred to as a misdirected bounce since it is sent to a user who should not have received it.

419 Scam

A 419 Scam is an attempt to steal money from people based on the promise that a person will gain extra money if they advance a small amount.

Auto Responder

An auto-responder is a computer program that automatically answers email sent to it. Users may consider these as spam.

Fraudulent Activity

Fraudulent activity refers to any attempt to unlawfully obtain money, information or resources from unsuspecting users within a network.